Indus Valley Civilization Class 6 Social Science Chapter 10

Indus Valley Civilization: This is the 10th Chapter of BOSEM (Board of Secondary Education Manipur) class 6 social science. This chapter will teach you about the Indus Valley civilization's lifestyle, culture, and geography.

Indus Valley Civilization


    The Chapter: Indus Valley Civilization

    First urbanization

    The Indus Valley civilization is the earliest known civilization of the Indian subcontinent. It existed between 2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C. It extends from the Manda district of Jammu and Kashmir in the north to Bhagatrav in Gujarat in the south. It extended from the Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh in the east to Sutkagendor in the Pakistan-Iran border in the west.


    Do you know?

    The total distance of the Indus Valley civilization from north to south is about 1,100 km and from east ot west is about 1,600 km. the total area covered by it is 1.3 million square kilometers, making it one of the biggest civilizations of the then contemporary world.

    So far more than 250 indius sites have been discovered. But only a few of them have been discovered as cities. Some of the Indus sites that have been considered as cities are Harappa on the left bank of the river Ravi in Punjab of Pakistan, Mohenjodaro on the right of the Indus River in Sind province of Pakistan, and Lothal, probably a seaport of the Indus in Gujarat.


    Do you know?

    The Indus Valley is so called because it flourishes on the river Indus and its tributaries. It is also called harappan culture because Harappa was the first site to be discovered.


    City Layout

    One of the remarkable features of the Indus Valley civilization is its town planning. The Indus cities were divided into two or more parts. One part was generally higher. Archaeologists called this part the citadel. The other part was a lower one. This part is known as the lower town.

    In the citadel part, the road of Indus City ran in a straight line. One road intersected with one another at a right angle. All the houses in a lane or a by-lane were of the same size. Below the citadel was the lower town, consisting of the houses of the commoners. The house in the lower town was built in barrack style. Here, houses generally have a single entrance door and no window.


    The uniqueness of a city

    Every Indian city has a peculiar feature of its own. For instance, in Mohenjodaro, the great bath. It was believed to have served as the bathing ritual. The working floor in Harappa consisted of rows of circular brick platforms. In Lothal was found an artificial brick dockyard. It must have served as the seaport of the Indus people.


    Occupations

    The Indus people were engaged in different occupations. Some of them were farmers and others were engaged in crafts, trade, etc.


    Agriculture

    Agriculture seems to be the main occupation of the people of the Indus Valley civilization. The main crops of the people were wheat and barley. The people also grew dated, mustard sesame, and cotton varieties. The Indus people were taken as the first ones to grow cotton.


    Craftsmen

    One of the important crafts of the Indus people was pottery. They made pots by using the potter’s wheel. They painted their pots in black and white. Making seals and ornaments of gold, silver, and copper with semi-precious stones was another popular craft. Many metal sculptures have also been discovered. A good example is the bronze statue of a dancing girl.

    Many engraved seals of lions, tigers, humped bulls, etc., have been found. These seals are known as terracotta. One seal of a three-faced god resembling Shiva Pashupati has been found.


    Trade and commerce

    More than two dozen Harappan seals have been found in Mesopotamia (present modern Iraq). Many Mesopotamian seals have also been found at various sites. The discovery of one’s seal at other sites strongly suggests that trade relations existed between the two countries. The presence of a brick dockyard at Lothal further shows  it as the port city of the Indus civilization


    Animals and the Indus people

    Many engraved seals of animals like sheep, goats, humped bulls, cattle, buffaloes, boars, dogs, cats, pigs, fowls, deer, camels, rhinoceros, tigers, etc., have been found at various Indus sites. The discovery of engraved animal seals shows that the Indus people were familiar with such animals. Many of them had been domesticated by the Indus people

    Religious beliefs

    The religious life of the Indus people is generally described from the remains of seals, amulets, copper tablets, etc. The chief male deity seems to be Pasupati Mahadeva. The chief female deity was the Mother Goddess. They also worshiped animals and trees. The pipal tree also seems to have been worshipped by the Indus people. Animals were also worshiped by the Indus people. The most important animal worshipped was the humped bull.

    Scripts

    No evidence of the script used by them has been discovered so far. They probably used pictographs as a means of communication. Evidence of pictographs is found on seals. More than 400 pictographs have been discovered. The script is yet to be deciphered satisfactorily.

    End of the first urbanization

    By 1500 B.C. the Indus Valley civilization came to an end. It is very difficult to give the exact causes for the end of the civilization. It is believed that there are many causes for the decline of the civilization.

    Some have attributed the cause for the decline of the civilization to decreasing fertility. Others have traced it to floods, the changing course of the rivers, the drying of the rivers, deforestation, the gradual decay of the culture, and the arrival of the new people, the Aryans.


    Notes


    The Indus Valley civilization is the earliest known civilization of the Indian subcontinent. It existed between 2,500 BC to 1,500 BC. 

    ✔ Important sites of Indus Valley civilization are Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal. It is also called Harappa culture because Harappa was the first site to be discovered. 

    ✔ One remarkable feature of the Indus Valley is its town planning. The cities were divided into citadel and lower towns. The roads of the city ran in a straight line and intersected with one another at a right angle. A peculiar feature of Mohenjo-Daro was the great bath. 

    ✔ The main occupation of the Indus people was Agriculture. They were also engaged in crafts, trade, etc. An important craft of the Indus people was Pottery. 
    Many metal sculptures were discovered; one example is the bronze statue of a dancing girl. 

    ✔ Terracotta is seals of lions, tigers, humped bulls, etc.

    ✔ The Indus Valley people traded with Mesopotamia as many Mesopotamian seals were discovered at various sites. 

    ✔ They domesticated cattle, goats, sheep, humped bulls, dogs, etc.

    ✔ They worshipped Pasupati Mahadeva as a male deity and Mother Goddess as a female deity. They also worshipped the Peepal tree and humped bulls. 

    ✔ There was no script, they probably used pictographs.

    ✔ The Indus Valley civilization came to an end by 1,500 BC. The exact causes of the end of the civilization are unknown.


    Questions and Answers


    Q1. How were Indus cities divided?
    Ans: The Indus cities were divided into two parts: Higher parts known as a citadel
     and lower parts known as lower town.

    Q2. Write the extent of the Indus Valley Civilization. 
    Ans: The Indus Valley Civilization extends from the Manda district of Jammu and Kashmir in the north to Bhagatrav in Gujarat in the south. It extended from the Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh in the east to Sutkagendor in the Pakistan- Iran border in the west. 

    Q3. Describe the town planning of the Indus cities. 
    Ans: One of the remarkable features of the Indus Valley Civilization is its town planning. The Indus cities were divided into two parts Citadel and Lower Town. The road of the Citadel ran in a straight line. One road intersected with another one at a right angle. All the houses in a lane or a by-lane were Of the same size. The houses in the lower town were built in barrack style. Houses generally had single-entrance doors and no windows. 

    Q4. How did the Indus Valley Civilization come to an end? 
    The exact cause for the end of the Indus Valley Civilization is not known. By 1500 BC it came to an end. It is believed that there are many causes for the decline of the civilization. Some of the causes for the decline of the civilization are: 

    i) Decreasing fertility 
    ii) Flood 
    iii) The changing course of the rivers 
    iv) Deforestation 
    v) Gradual decay of the culture and 
    vi) Arrival of the new people, the Aryans.

    Extra Questions and Answers

    Q1. Name the earliest known civilization of the Indian sub-continent?
    Ans: The Indus Valley civilization is the earliest known civilization of the Indian subcontinent.

    Q2. How many Indus sites have been discovered?
    Ans: More than 250 Indus sites have been discovered.

    Q3. Name some sites that have been considered as cities of the Indus Valley civilization.
    Ans: Some sites that have been considered cities of the Indus Valley civilization are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, and Lothal.

    Q4. Why is Indus Valley so-called?
    Ans: Because it flourished on the river Indus and its Tributaries.

    Q5. What are terracotta?
    Ans: Terracotta are engraved seals of lions, tigers, humped bulls, etc.

    Q6. What was the main occupation of the people of the Indus Valley civilization?
    Ans: Agriculture.

    Q7. Name the important craft of the Indus People?
    Ans: Pottery.

    Q8. What shows Lothal was a port city of the Indus Civilization?
    Ans: The presence of a brick dockyard at Lothal shows that it was the port city of the Indus civilization.

    Q9. What are the unique features of the Mohenjodaro?
    Ans: The great bath is the unique feature of the Mohenjodaro.

    Q10. Write a short note about the religion of Indus people.

    Ans: The religious life of the Indus people is generally described from the remains of the seals amulets, copper tablet etc. The chief male deity was Pasupati Mahadeva and female deity was mother Goddess. They also worshipped trees and animals. The Peepal trees were worshipped by the Indus people. The most important animal worshipped was the humped bull.



    Post a Comment

    0 Comments